Our Work

A selection of cases Dr. Liu has completed to help describe some common orthodontic problems and their typical solutions.

Crowding Before Crowding After


The most common orthodontic problem. It can be solved by expanding the dental arches, extracting teeth, interproximal reduction (slimming selected teeth a small amount), or a combination these methods.

Deep Bite Before Deep Bite After

Deep Bite

Usually accompanied by an overbite, a deep bite occurs when the upper incisors cover too much of the lower incisors. A bite plate or other device to open the bite may be used to correct this problem.

Underbite Before Underbite After


An underbite can be caused by misaligned teeth or uneven jaw sizes. It is important to find out the true cause of the underbite as the solutions to correcting it can range widely, from simply using the braces and wires, to rubber bands and potentially jaw surgery.

Midline Shift Before Midline Shift After

Midline Shift

It may be hard to notice at first glance, but the line between the upper front teeth does not match with the line between the lower front teeth. There are many causes for this. While it is ideal to correct this, it is not always 100% possible without compromising the treatment elsewhere.

Crossbite Before Crossbite After


A very common situation where the upper teeth are inside of the lower teeth (on this patient's left side). Typically, crossbites are corrected by expanding the upper jaw, a simple procedure in children and early teens, a difficult one in older teens and adults. One of the best reasons to see an orthodontist early.

Open Bite Before Open Bite After

Open Bite

Any situation where the upper and lower teeth do not meet. Open bites are usually caused by oral habits such as thumb sucking, extensive pacifier use or tongue thrusting. Can be corrected with braces, but the offending habit must be stopped, otherwise the open bite will likely return.

Protrusion Before Protrusion After


In some situations where there is too much tooth material for a particular set of jaws, instead of the teeth rotating and looking crowded, they'll protrude forwards and push the lips forward with them. Typically, in order to upright the teeth and retract them, extractions will be necessary to create enough space.

Spacing Before Spacing After


Sometimes the teeth are just too small to fill in the entire jaw. Fortunately, this is a somewhat simpler situation to correct than crowding, however, a decision must be made as to whether to retract the front teeth, or to bring the back teeth forward. The right choice will provide a much better smile and profile.

Can You Spot the Problems? Before Can You Spot the Problems? After

Can You Spot the Problems?

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Crowding on both upper and lower teeth, crossbites on both sides, midline shift and protrusion (difficult to see in this picture). This challenging adult case required some extractions, but with excellent patient cooperation, she finished treatment in just under 24 months.